This article assumes that you have basic knowledge of exposure, f-stops, shutter times and aperture values and how those last two relate. More on this subject will follow later.

How does your camera meter light?

Most, if not all modern cameras have built-in exposure meters. The photocell measures light reflected from the scene. The exposure meter tells the camera (you) how you should expose for a particular scene.
So, how does it know how you should set your exposure? Well, as a matter of fact, it doesn’t. The meter is calibrated to see the world in middle gray. A middle gray subject reflects 18% of the light that falls on it.

What is middle gray then, you may wonder. In terms of gray tones, it looks like this:

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